Types of Organizational Charts
Line or Direct
The line organizational chart depicts a straight line of command. Authority is said to flow downwards only in the line organization. The line organizational structure is found in schools or in the military.
Functional Organizational Chart
The Functional organization chart is a diagram of an organization that is arranged by its functions. For example, there is a manager in charge of marketing, and another in charge of production. This type of organization has an advantage over the Line as experts are appointed to run each department. All managers report to the General Manager.
The Functional organizational chart combines the straight line of command of the line organization with horizontal dotted diagonal lines representing functional authority. The dotted diagonal lines in the figure above show the authority that the Human Resource Manager has over other departments. The Human Resource Manager is allowed authority in these department over human resource matters only e.g. to hire and fire workers. He therefore cannot give directives on production or marketing matters.
Line and Staff Organizational Chart
The Line and Staff organizational chart combines the line and functional organization with the addition of staff personnel. Staff workers assist and advise line workers. Staff workers include consultants, advisors, company lawyers, executive secretary, auxiliary workers etc. Staff officers do not have authority, that is, the power to delegate tasks to subordinates in the organization. Their main role is to advise and assist line officers. This is why there are no vertical lines connecting staff officers to any other member of staff on the chart. They are therefore, placed at the side directly below the line officer whom they assist or advise.
Committee Organizational Chart
Committees are advisory bodies. They are usually appointed to advise organizations. Examples of committees include; parent teachers associations and student councils which are committees within a school organization. Committees usually delegate certain duties to sub-committees. For example, an executive committee may appoint a finance committee to advise it on financial matters. Note that an element of the line organization exists in the committee organization as all sub-committees are responsible to the executive committee.